Bloc atrioventricular (bav sau bloc a-v)

Alterare a conductiei electrice in tesutul nodal (tesut propriu muschiului cardiac) dintre atrii si ventricule. Blocurile auriculoventriculare (B.A.V.) sunt clasate dupa trei grade de gravitate, fiecare tip putand fi acut sau cronic:
- simpla alungire a intervalului de contractie intre auricule si ventricule, contractia ventriculelor continuand sa urmeze in mod normal pe cea a auriculelor;
- disocierea contractiei ventriculului de cea a atriulului, cu absenta contractiei ventriculului dupa unele contractii ale atriului;
- disocierea completa intre contractiile atriale si contractiile ventriculare, care sunt incetinite.

Cauze
- Blocurile atrioventriculare acute se observa, in principal, in perioada initiala a infarctului de miocard. Ele mai pot interveni si dupa o interventie de chirurgie cardiaca, in decursul unei boli infectioase (endocardita bacteriana) sau virale, sau pot fi favorizate de anumite medicamente (anestezice locale, betablocante, amiodarona).
- Blocurile auriculoventriculare cronice sunt legate cel mai des de o boala degenerativa a cailor de conductie electrica la subiectii trecuti de 60 ani. Alte cauze sunt miocardiopatiile, cardiopatiile valvulare, malformatiile congenitale sau simplul soc vag al al sportivilor (hiperactivitatea sistemului nervos autonom parasimpatic).

simptome si diagnostic - Un bloc auriculoventricular poate fi asimptomatic sau se poate manifesta printr-o sincopa sau printr-un sindrom Adam-Stokes (accident neurologic cauzat de o brusca diminuare a irigatiei cerebrale), cu riscul de recidiva si de moarte brutala. insuficienta cardiaca este posibila in cazul unei disocieri complete, a unei cardiopatii subiacente si a unei incetiniri importante a ritmului cardiac
Diagnosticul se fundamenteaza pe o electrocardiograma, localizarea precisa a blocului putand apela la o imegistrare a fasciculului lui His (inregistrarea endocavitara a activitatii electrice cardiace cu ajutorul unei sonde introduse in inima).

Tratament - Unele blocuri, care nu prezinta simptome si/sau nu antreneaza o incetinire cardiaca importanta, nu necesita tratament. Tratamentul de baza al blocurilor acute este antrenarea electrosistolica temporara (sonda intracardiaca stimuland cordul), cel al blocurilor cronice, implantarea unui stimulator extracorporal (pacemaker).

Sinonim: bloc auriculoventricular.

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AMVC Error

Smarty error: unable to read resource: "/var/www/html/sfatulmedicului.ro/external/templates/default//adds/box_.tpl"

File /usr/share/pear/AS/SMARTY/Smarty.class.php at 1092


Debug trace:
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